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10% 30gr CBD FULL Cannabis, Milk Thistle, Black Cumin, Honey

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INGREDIENTS:
Honey (mel), hemp (Cannabis sativa L), milk thistle (Silybum marianum), black cumin (Nigella sativa). Made by hand according to a traditional recipe with a full spectrum of ingredients.

€66.00
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CBDFULL-10-30-h-h-m-s

10% 30gr CBD FULL

Cannabis extract (according to Paracelsus), Milk Thistle, Black Cumin, Honey.

APPLICATION:
2-3 times a day 1 pea size (1g) melt in the mouth and drink 0.2 l of water. Duration as required. The specified recommended daily dose should not be exceeded. A dietary supplement is not a substitute for a varied diet. Keep away from children. Store dark at room temperature.

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Manufacturer Organic Gardens GmbH
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You're reviewing:10% 30gr CBD FULL Cannabis, Milk Thistle, Black Cumin, Honey

Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.)

Medicinal Plant of the Year 2018

The endocannabinoid system

is an important part of the central and peripheral nervous system responsible for signal transmission between the brain, spinal cord, vegetative nervous system and organs as well as a regulator of optimal physiological and cognitive processes such as: immune system,[1] vegetative nervous system,[2] social behavior and fear,[3] movement, memory, learning processes,[4] control over the formation, survival or death of neural and non-neural cells,[5] as well as for appetite,[6] pain, inflammation,[7] fat and energy metabolism[8] and much more.
   Changes in the endocannabinoid system or cannabinoid deficiency lead to a poorly functioning immune system and a variety of disease states.

Cannabis in the ancient art of healing 

The Use of hemp for a wide range of diseases has been documented for more than 4,800 years.

The Chinese used it for anesthesia during surgical procedures, for malaria, rheumatism, constipation, disorders of the female reproductive system and as a laxative.[9]

In India, hemp was used as an analgesic (toothache, headache and neuralgia), for cramps (tetanus, rabies, colic, diarrhea and epilepsy), for calming (mania, hysteria and anxiety), and for pain relief in inflammatory diseases such as rheumatism, as an antibiotic , used for asthma, bronchitis and many others.[10] [11] [12]

Egyptians used hemp to heal glaucoma,[13] gynecological diseases, pain,[14] fever, obstetrics,[15] parasites,[16] tumors, wounds, swellings, abscesses fever,[17] eyes, cancer and anorectal diseases.[18]

In the west, hemp as a medicine did not trigger a boom until the 19th century.

Hundreds of scientific articles on the healing powers of hemp have been published.[19] A wide range of diseases have been treated. By 1930, more than 2000 hemp-based drugs had been offered.[20] Numerous medical uses of hemp are described in "Sajous's Analytic Cyclopedia of Practical Medicine (1924)"[21] summarized.
After a global ban at the “Geneva Opium Conference 1925” and a demonization campaign, cannabis has disappeared as a medicine.

The Rediscovery

Under public pressure due to the diseases that conventional medicine is at a loss, scientists in the 1970s scrutinized the therapeutic value of cannabis. Over 100,000 studies and specialist articles on cannabis and cannabinoids have now been published. In Germany, treatment with drugs based on cannabis is permitted for over 60 diseases subject to prescription.[22]

According to studies, cannabinoids could represent a safe, inexpensive therapy for a wide range of disease states due to their natural origin and their low side effect profile and protective function against pathological conditions.

Cannabinoids and Pain 

Taking cannabinoids eliminates endocannabinoid deficiency as the main cause of migraines, fibromyalgia[23], irritable bowel syndrome,[24] and other treatment-resistant chronic pain.[25]  Cannabinoids affect the caudal vent, a part of the diencephalon that is responsible for the sense of pain, and are 10 times more effective than morphine by reducing the sensation of pain.[26] The endocannabinoid system influences pain control and mediates central stress-induced analgesia (insensitivity to pain).[27] Cannabinoid agonists suppress chronic and neuropathic pain by activating the CB1 and CB2 receptors in the spinal cord.[28] Cannabinoids reduce hyperalgesia (increased sensation of pain stimulus) by inhibiting the calcitonin gene-related peptide.[29] Cannabinoids inhibit glutamate release and reduce neuropathic pain and secondary and tertiary hyperalgesia (increased sensation of pain stimulus) in migraines and fibromyalgia.[30] Cannabinoids stimulate the production of beta-endorphin, an endogenous morphine with analgesic effects,[31] cannabinoids have twenty times the anti-inflammatory effect of aspirin and double the effect of hydrocortisone.[32] Cannabinoid-2 receptor agonist relieves pain and bone loss caused by bone cancer.[33] [34] Cannabinoids reduce hypersensitivity to pain caused by cancer and reduce inflammatory muscle pain.[35]

Cannabinoids and cancer

The most important property of cannabinoids in cancer treatment is the ability to kill tumor cells in a targeted manner.[36] Studies suggest that cannabinoids can be used in lung cancer,[37] Brain tumors,[38] [39] [40] [41] Breast cancer,[42] [43] [44] Pancreatic cancer,[45] [46] [47] Lymphoma, [48] [49] [50] Thyroid cancer, [51] [52] Skin cancer, [53] [54] Uterine carcinoma, [55] prostate carcinoma, [56] [57] [58] Colon cancer,[59] [60] [61] and bone cancer. [62] [63] Cannabinoids have similar or better effectiveness in relieving chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting than approved anti-emetic drugs.[64]

Cannabinoids in injuries and chronic neurodegenerative diseases

Cannabinoids are used because of the reduction of classic neurotoxic events, the removal of pathological deposits through improved neurological performance, reduced edema, infarct size, glioses, inflammation, blood-brain barrier disorders, in the treatment of brain injuries,[65] strokes[66] [67] [68] and chronic neurodegenerative diseases such as: Alzheimer,[69] [70] [71] [72]  Parkinson's,[73] [74] Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis,[75] [76] [77] Multiple sclerosis,[78] very promising.

Cannabinoids for psychosis, depression and anxiety

Cannabinoids reduce: acute stress,[79] [80] Panic attacks and phobic fears,[81] depression,[82] [83] [84] stress-related damage to the hippocampus,[85] psychosis, [86] and schizophrenia.[87] [88]

Neuroprotective and neuroregenerative properties of cannabinoids

Cannabinoids promote neuroplasticity (ability of the brain to change and adapt to experiences in response), [89] repair and regrowth,[90] [91]

also protect the nerve cells from dying. [92] [93] In this way they form a protection against neurodegenerative diseases such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), mood disorders, Alzheimer's, Huntington's, Parkinson's and schizophrenia. [94]

Cannabinoids and epilepsy

Patients with drug-resistant epilepsy have fewer seizures, [95] degeneration and neuron loss in the hippocampus,[96] especially in Lennox-Gastaut and Dravet syndrome.[97] [98] [99] [100] Patients have few or no seizures and better mood, communication, motor skills, language, behavior, Alertness and sleep[101] [102] Hemp extracts with high levels of CBD and low levels of THC have better anti-epileptic effects than approved drugs such as diphenylhydantoin and mysoline[103].

Cannabinoids inhibit opiate addiction and withdrawal symptoms

Cannabidiol inhibits narcotics addiction, withdrawal symptoms, heroin addiction, [104] [105] [106] Cocaine addiction[107] morphine addiction[108] [109] [110]  and tobacco addiction. [111]


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[86] Zuardi AW, Rodrigues JA, Cunha JM. Effects of cannabidiol in animal models predictive of antipsychotic activity. Psychopharmacology (1991) 104: 260-4. doi: 10.1007 / BF02244189
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[87] Leweke FM, Piomelli D, Pahlisch F, Muhl D, Gerth CW, Hoyer C. Cannabidiol enhances anandamide signaling and alleviates psychotic symptoms of schizophrenia. Transl Psychiatry (2012) 2: e94. doi: 10.1038 / tp.2012.15
[CrossRef]

[88] Hallak JE, Dursun SM, Bosi DC, de Macedo LR, Machado-de-Sousa JP, Abrão J, et al. The interplay of cannabinoid and NMDA glutamate receptor systems in humans: preliminary evidence of interactive effects of cannabidiol and ketamine in healthy human subjects. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry (2011) 35: 198-202. doi: 10.1016 / j.pnpbp.2010.11.002
[CrossRef]

[89] Campos, Alline C. and Fogaça, Manoela V. and Scarante, Franciele F. and Joca, Sâmia RL and Sales, Amanda J. and Gomes, Felipe V. and Sonego, Andreza B. and Rodrigues, Naielly S. and Galve-Roperh , Ismael and Guimarães, Francisco S. Plastic and Neuroprotective Mechanisms Involved in the Therapeutic Effects of Cannabidiol in Psychiatric Disorders “Frontiers in Pharmacology” DOI: 10.3389 / fphar.2017.00269
[CrossRef]

[90] Fuchs, E. and Flugge, G. (2014). Adult Neuroplasticity: More Than 40 Years of Research
[CrossRef]

[91] Wolf SA, et al. 2010 Cannabinoid receptor CB1 mediates baseline and activity-induced survival of new neurons in adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Cell Commun. Signal. 810.1186 / 1478-811X-8-12 (doi: 10.1186 / 1478-811X-8-12).
[Pub Med]

[92] Wolf SA, Bick-Sander A, Fabel K, et al. Cannabinoid receptor CB1 mediates baseline and activity-induced survival of new neurons in adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Cell Commun Signal. 2010; 8:12. Published 2010 Jun 17. doi: 10.1186 / 1478-811X-8-12
[Pub Med]

[93] Jia J, Le W. Molecular network of neuronal autophagy in the pathophysiology and treatment of depression. Neurosci Bull. (2015) 31: 427-34. doi: 10.1007 / s12264-015-1548-2
[CrossRef]

[94] Campos Alline C., Fogaça Manoela V., Scarante Franciele F., Joca Sâmia RL, Sales Amanda J., Gomes Felipe V., Sonego Andreza B., Rodrigues Naielly S., Galve-Roperh Ismael, Guimarães Francisco S.  Plastic and Neuroprotective Mechanisms Involved in the Therapeutic Effects of Cannabidiol in Psychiatric Disorders Frontiers in Pharmacology VOLUME = 8
[CrossRef]

[95] Trembly, B., and Sherman, M. (1990). “Double-blind clinical study of cannabidiol as a secondary anticonvulsant,” in Proceedings of the Marijuana 90 International Conference on Cannabis and Cannabinoids, Kolympari, Crete, July 1990 (Cologne: International Association for Cannabinoid Medicines).
[karger]

[96] Do Val-da Silva Raquel A., Peixoto-Santos Jose E., Kandratavicius Ludmyla, De Ross Jana B., Esteves Ingrid, De Martinis Bruno S., Alves Marcela NR, Scandiuzzi Renata C., Hallak Jaime EC, Zuardi Antonio W ., Crippa Jose A., Leite Joao P. Protective Effects of Cannabidiol against Seizures and Neuronal Death in a Rat Model of Mesial Temporal Lobe Epilepsy Frontiers in Pharmacology
[CrossRef]

[97] Devinsky O, Marsh E, Friedman D, Thiele E, Laux L, Sullivan J, et al. Cannabidiol in patients with treatment-resistant epilepsy: an open-label interventional trial. Lancet Neurol. (2016) 15: 270-8. doi: 10.1016 / S1474-4422 (15) 00379-8
[CrossRef]

[98] Devinsky O, Cross JH, Laux L, Marsh E, Miller I, Nabbout R, et al. Trial of cannabidiol for drug-resistant seizures in the dravet syndrome. N Engl J Med. (2017) 376: 2011-20. doi: 10.1056 / NEJMoa1611618
[CrossRef]

[99] Devinsky O, Patel AD, Cross JH, Villanueva V, Wirrell EC, Privitera M, et al. Effect of cannabidiol on drop seizures in the lennox-gastaut syndrome. N Engl J Med. (2018) 378: 1888-97. doi: 10.1056 / NEJMoa1714631
[CrossRef]

[100] Cunha, JM, Carlini, EA, Pereira, AE, Ramos, OL, Pimentel, C., Gagliardi, R., et al. (1980). Chronic administration of cannabidiol to healthy volunteers and epileptic patients. Pharmacology 21, 175-185. doi: 10.1159 / 000137430
[CrossRef]

[101] Brenda E. PorterCatherineJacobson Report of a parent survey of cannabidiol-enriched cannabis use in pediatric treatment-resistant epilepsy Epilepsy & Behavior
[CrossRef]

[102] CBD-enriched medical cannabis for intractable pediatric epilepsy The current Israeli experience Michal Tzadok, Shimrit Uliel-Siboni, Ilan Linder, Uri Kramer, Orna Epstein, Shay Menascu, Andrea Nissenkorn, Omer Bar Yosef, Eli Hyman, Dorit Granot, Michael Dor, Tali Lerman Sagie, Bruria Ben-Zeev Seizure February 2016
[CrossRef]

[103] Izquierdo, I., Orsingher, OA & Berardi, AC Effect of cannabidiol and of other Cannabis sativa compounds on hippocampal seizure discharges. Psychopharmacologia 28: 95-102 (1973).
[CrossRef]

[104] Cannabidiol, a Nonpsychotropic Component of Cannabis, Inhibits Cue-Induced Heroin Seeking and Normalizes Discrete Mesolimbic Neuronal Disturbances
Yanhua Ren, John Whittard, Alejandro Higuera-Matas, Claudia V. Morris and Yasmin L. Hurd Journal of Neuroscience November 25, 2009, 29
[CrossRef]

[105] De Vries, TJ, Homberg, JR, Binnekade, R. et al. Cannabinoid modulation of the reinforcing and motivational properties of heroin and heroin-associated cues in rats. Psychopharmacology 168: 164-169 (2003).
[CrossRef]

[106] JL Scavone, RC Sterling, EJ Van Bockstaele Neuroscience. 2013 Cannabinoid and opioid interactions: Implications for opiate dependence and withdrawal
[PMC]

[107] Cannabidiol, a Cannabis sativa constituent, inhibits cocaine-induced seizures in mice: Possible role of the mTOR pathway and reduction in glutamate release Pedro H. Gobira, Luciano R. Vilela, Bruno DC Gonçalves, Rebeca PM Santos, Antonio C. de Oliveira, Luciene B. Vieira, Daniele C. Aguiar, José A. Crippa, Fabricio A. Moreira NeuroToxicology August 15, 2015.
[CrossRef]

[108] Hurd YL, Spriggs S, Alishayev J, et al. Cannabidiol for the Reduction of Cue-Induced Craving and Anxiety in Drug-Abstinent Individuals With Heroin Use Disorder:
[Pub Med]

[109] Cannabinoid CB 1 receptor knockout mice fail to self-administer morphine but not other drugs of abuse Gregorio Cossu; Liana Fattore; Walter Fratta; Catherine Ledent; Marc Parmentier; Assunta Imperato; Georg A. Böhme Behav Brain Res. 2001
[Pub Med]

[110] Navarro M, Chowen J, Rocio A Carrera M, et al. CB1 cannabinoid receptor antagonist-induced opiate withdrawal in morphine-dependent rats.
[Pub Med]

[111] Morgan CJ, Das RK, Joye A, Curran HV, Kamboj SK. Cannabidiol reduces cigarette consumption in tobacco smokers: preliminary findings. Addict Behav. 2013 Sep;38(9):2433-6. doi: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2013.03.011. Epub 2013 Apr 1. PMID: 23685330.
[ncbi]

 

Honey

Crystallized honey is ideal as an absorption booster.

Honey should be kept in the oral cavity, preferably under the tongue, for as long as possible until the crystals dissolve gently. The substances dissolved in honey reach the bloodstream directly through the mucous membrane.

Honey is the best preservative

Pre-Christian cultures used honey to preserve valuable food for eternity. For years they preserved fresh fruit, vegetables, fish, meat and valuable seeds in raw honey. Real properly stored honey never goes bad. More than 3000 years old honey from Egyptian graves is still edible. During their lavish celebrations, the Romans enjoyed fruits and other foods from distant areas, which were transported in honey and thus remained fresh.[1]

Honey in traditional healing practices

People have been using the healing properties of honey since the Stone Age.[2]

The outstanding effect of honey on our body is well known in all traditional healing practices. Because of bаktеrіzіdes and bacteriostatic [3] properties, it has been and is used externally and internally to treat a variety of diseases, injuries and ailments.

India 
Ayurveda recommends honey for the treatment of poor digestion, irritating cough, asthma, bronchial tuberculosis, insomnia, heart pain, palpitations, lung imbalance, hepatitis, worm infestation, constipation, anemia, eye diseases (such as cataracts) and to keep teeth and gums healthy, treatment vomiting, diarrhea, rheumatoid arthritis, obesity, diabetes mellitus and for the preservation of meat and fruits.[4]

Egypt
honey was the most popular Egyptian remedy. It was mentioned 500 times in 900 recipes.[5] They also used honey to embalm the dead.

Greece
Honey is used in Greece as an
oenomel remedy traditionally as a folk remedy and nervous disorders. Hippocrates prescribed as Oxymel (vinegar and honey) for pain, honey and medicinal plants for acute fever,[6] he used honey for baldness, contraception, wound healing, laxatives, coughs and sore throats, eye diseases, topical antisepsis, prevention and treatment of scars[7]

Islamic medicine
Prophet Mohammad recommended honey To Treat Diarrhea [8] Avicenna hadhoney as one of the best drugs to treat tuberculosis [9] recommended.

Traditional Chinese Medicine
In Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), honey was used as an additive in herbal medicines to improve their immunostimulatory activities.[10]

Due to the antibiotics, the effects of honey have been forgotten. Only with the appearance of multi-resistant microorganisms is medicine forced to respect the antibiotic effect of honey.

Researches:

Honey for Respiratory

Honey has good antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral properties, and Infectionsis superior to prescription drugs, and antibiotics for relieving symptoms of upper respiratory infections[11]. No honey-resistantyet phenotypes have appeared.[12] [13] Honey does not and can cause the development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria Continuous use[14]

Honey for gastrointestinal disorders

Honey istreating colitis just as effective as prednisolone in[15]. Oral administration provides protection against gastrointestinal infections such as gastritis, duodenitis and gastric ulcers caused by bacteria and rotaviruses.[16] [17] [18] [19] Blocks the deposition of pathogenic microorganisms on the intestinal epithelium and protects against bacterial infection of the gastrointestinal tract [20]. Honey quickly resolves diarrhea and gastroenteritis[21] [22]. It can be used to heal stomach ulcersulcers, and [23] as well as vomiting, diarrhea, rheumatoid arthritis, and obesity [24] .

Honey and Diabetes

Honey lowers blood lipids, homocysteine ??levels, and C-reactive protein levels [25]. Honey stimulates insulin secretion, lowers blood sugar levels, increases hemoglobin concentration and improves lipid profile[26] [27]

Honey and cardiovascular diseases

Honey lowers cardiovascular risk factors such as the formation of free radicals and hyperlipidemia [28] [29] Honey lowers venous blood pressure, which reduces tension in the heart and clogging in the venous system [30]. Consumption of natural honey for five weeks has strong anti-arrhythmic and infarct-inhibiting effects [31].


[1] Dr. S. Mladenov, The Preservative Effect of Honey, Pchelarstvo Magazine, issue 12, 1967
[Honeypedia]

[2] Bansal V, Medhi B, Pandhi P. Honey a remedy rediscovered and its therapeutic utility. Kathmandu Univ Med J (KUMJ). 2005 Jul-Sep; 3 (3): 305-9. PMID: 18650599.
[PubMed]

[3] bactericidal = germicidal, bacteriostatic = inhibiting the growth or reproduction of bacteria

[4] Ediriweera E., Premarathna N. Medicinal and cosmetic uses of bee's honey - A review. Ayu. 2012; 33: 178.
[PMC free article]

[5]  Al-Jabri AA. Honey, milk and antibiotics. Afr J Biotechnol. 2005; 4: 1580-1587.
[AJB]

[6] Honey - a remedy rediscovered. Zumla A, Lulat AJR Soc Med. 1989 Jul; 82 (7): 384-5.
[PubMed]

[7]  Bansal V, Medhi B, Pandhi P. Honey a remedy rediscovered and its therapeutic utility. Kathmandu Univ Med J (KUMJ). 2005 Jul-Sep; 3 (3): 305-9. PMID: 18650599.
[PubMed]

[8] Molan PC. Why honey is effective as a medicine. 1. Its use in modern medicine. Bee World. 1999; 80: 80-92.
[TaylorFrancis]

[9] The antimycobacterial effect of honey: an in vitro study. Asadi-Pooya AA, Pnjehshahin MR, Beheshti S Riv Biol. 2003 Sep-Dec; 96 (3): 491-5.
[PubMed]

[10] The immunostimulatory effects and chemical characteristics of heated honey. Department of Pharmacognosy, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Nagoya City University, 3-1 Tanabe-Dori, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya 467-8603, Japan
[PubMed]

[11] Abuelgasim H, Albury C, Lee J. Effectiveness of honey for symptomatic relief in upper respiratory tract infections: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ Evid Based Med. 2020 Aug 18: bmjebm-2020-111336. doi: 10.1136 / bmjebm-2020-111336. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 32817011.
[PubMed]

[12] Maddocks SE, Jenkins RE. Honey: a sweet solution to the growing problem of antimicrobial resistance? Future Microbiol. 2013 Nov; 8 (11): 1419-29. doi: 10.2217 / fmb.13.105. PMID: 24199801.
[FutureMedicine]

[13] Bacteria can't resist honey. Dixon B Lancet Infect Dis. 2003 Feb; 3 (2): 116.
[PubMed

[14] A different and safe method of split thickness skin graft fixation: medical honey application. Emsen IM Burns. 2007 Sep; 33 (6): 782-7.
[PubMed]

[15] Bilsel Y, Bugra D, Yamaner S, Bulut T, Cevikbas U, Turkoglu U. Could honey have a place in colitis therapy? Effects of honey, prednisolone and disulfiram on inflammation, nitric oxide, and free radical formation. Dig Surg. 2002; 19: 306-311.
[PubMed]

[16] Tallet S, Mackkenzie C, Middleton P, Kerzner B, Hamilton R. Clinical, laboratory and epidemiologic features of viral gastroenteritis in infants and children. Pediatrics. 1977; 60: 217-222.
[PubMed]

[17] Haffejee I, Moosa AE. Honey in the treatment of infantile gastroenteritis. Br Med J. 1985; 290: 1866-1867.
[PMC free article]

[18] Somal N, Coley K, Molan P, Hancock B. Susceptibility of Helicobacter pylori to the antibacterial activity of Manuka honey. J Royal Soc Med. 1994; 87: 9-12.
[PMC free article]

[19] Topham J. Why do some cavity wounds treated with honey or sugar paste heal without scarring? J Wound Care. 2002; 11: 53-55.
[PubMed]

[20] Alnaqdy A, Al-Jabri A, Al Mahrooqi Z, Nzeako B, Nsanze H. Inhibition effect of honey on the adherence of Salmonella to intestinal epithelial cells in vitro. Int J Food Microbiol. 2005; 103: 347-351.
[PubMed]

[21] Honey-a remedy rediscovered and its therapeutic utility. Bansal V, Medhi B, Pandhi P Kathmandu Univ Med J (KUMJ). 2005 Jul-Sep; 3 (3): 305-9.
[PubMed]

[22] The antibacterial effect of honey on diarrhea causing bacterial agents isolated in Lagos, Nigeria. Obi CL, Ugoji EO, Edun SA, Lawal SF, Anyiwo CE Afr J Med Med Sci. 1994 Sep; 23 (3): 257-60.
[PubMed]

[23] Ali ATM. Natural honey accelerates healing of indomethacin-induced antral ulcers in rats. Saudi Med J. 1995; 16: 161-166.
[WHO]

[24] Ediriweera ER, Premarathna NY. Medicinal and cosmetic uses of Bee's Honey - A review. Ayu. 2012; 33 (2): 178-182. doi: 10.4103 / 0974-8520.105233
[PMC] 

[25] Natural honey lowers plasma glucose, C-reactive protein, homocysteine, and blood lipids in healthy, diabetic, and hyperlipidemic subjects: comparison with dextrose and sucrose. Al-Waili NS J Med Food. 2004 Spring; 7 (1): 100-7.
[PubMed]

[26] Effect of honey on antibody production against thymus-dependent and thymus-independent antigens in primary and secondary immune responses. Al-Waili NS, Haq AJ Med Food. 2004 winter; 7 (4): 491-4.
[PubMed]

[27]  Bahrami M, Ataie-Jafari A, Hosseini S, Forouzanfar M, Rahmani M, Pajouhi M. Effects of natural honey consumption in diabetic patients: an 8-week randomized clinical trial. Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2008; 2: 1-9.
[PubMed]

[28]  Schramm DD, Karim M, Schrader HR, Holt RR, Cardetti M, Keen CL. Honey with high levels of antioxidants can provide protection to healthy human subjects. J Agric Food Chem. 2003; 51: 1732-1735.
[PubMed]

[29] Yaghoobi N, Al-Waili N, Ghayour-Mobarhan M, Parizadeh SMR, Abasalti Z, Yaghoobi Z, et al. Natural honey and cardiovascular risk factors; effects on blood glucose, cholesterol, triacylglycerols, CRP and body weight compared with sucrose. Sci World J. 2008; 8: 463-469.
[PMC free article]

[30] Rakha MK, Nabil ZI, Hussein AA. Cardioactive and vasoactive effects of natural wild honey against cardiac malperformance induced by hyperadrenergic activity. J Med Food. 2008; 11: 91-98.
[PubMed]

[31]  Najafi M, Shaseb E, Ghaffary S, Fakhrju A, Eteraf-Oskouei T. Effects of chronic oral administration of natural honey on ischemia / reperfusion-induced arrhythmias in isolated rat heart. Iran J Basic Med Sci. 2011; 14: 75-81.
[eprints]

Black cumin (Nigella sativa)

"Cures every disease except death"

(Prophet Muhammad)

The beneficial seeds of black cumin have been a sought-after remedy in the Orient for thousands of years for colds, headaches, toothaches, rheumatic diseases, asthma, gastrointestinal complaints, high blood pressure, all types of cancer, uterine diseases, and menstrual disorders. They are used to inhibit perspiration, increase potency, against worms and parasites, in fever and after poisonous stings and bites,[1] [2] [3] skin diseases, jaundice, loss of appetite, conjunctivitis, dyspepsia, rheumatism, diabetes, intrinsic hemorrhage, paralysis, amenorrhea, anorexia, cough, bronchitis, headache, fever, influenza, and eczema. [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9]

In the Western world, true black cumin remained in the shadows for a long time. It was not until a horse suffering from asthma was cured that black cumin was rediscovered in Europe.[10]  Black cumin is one of the best evaluated evidence-based medicinal plants.

Recent studies demonstrate the versatility of black cumin

Black cumin contains over 100 valuable ingredients that positively influence many biochemical processes in the body, as well as balance hormones, metabolism and the immune system.

Black cumin has a broad (incl. antibiotic resistant gram-negative and gram-positive) antibacterial,[11] [12] Antifungal,[13] [14] [15] [16] [17] [18] [19] [20] Antiviral,[21] [22] [23] [24] Antiparasitic,[25] [26] [27] Anti schistosomiasises,[28] [29] [30] [31] Spectrum of activity.

Black cumin can be used in chronic inflammatory bowel disease, inflammation of blood vessels, circulatory disorders, diabetes, insulin resistance,[32] dissolution of kidney stones,[33] rheumatoid arthritis,[34] chronic neuropathic pain,[35] fever,[36] high blood pressure,[37] [38] Dyslipidemia, metabolic syndrome,[39] [40] [41] Asthma, hay fever,[42] [43] Allergies,[44] cramps, [45] [46] Toxicities,[47] [48] metabolic diseases,[49] menopause,[50] [51] Obesity,[52] [53] [54] dyslipidemia,[55] hyperlipidemia,[56] childhood epilepsy,[57] [58] [59] chronic hepatitis C,[60] [61] HIV,[62] [63] Tapeworms,[64] male infertility,[65] [66] Rheumatoid arthritis[67].

According to research, black cumin prevents tumor growth and metastasis in blood, breast, colon, pancreatic, liver, lung, fibrosarcoma, prostate, kidney, skin, and cervical cancers.[68] [69] [70] [71] After methotrexate treatment in children with lymphocytic leukemia, black cumin decreases liver damage and increases survival rate.[72]


 

[1] Gilani, A. U. H., Jabeen, Q., & Khan, M. A. U. (2004). A Review of Medicinal Uses and Pharmacological Activities of Nigella sativa. Pakistan Journal ofBiological Sciences, 7(4), 441-451
[Research Gate]

[2] Krishnapura Srinivasan, Cumin (Cuminum cyminum) and black cumin (Nigella sativa) seeds: traditional uses, chemical constituents, and nutraceutical effects, Food Quality and Safety, Volume 2, Issue 1, March 2018, Pages 1–16,
[Oxford Academic Journals]

[3] Ramadan, M. F. (2007). Nutritional value, functional properties and nutraceutical applications of black cumin (Nigella sativa L.): an overview. International journal of food science & technology, 42(10), 1208-1218.
[International Journal of Food Science & Technology]

[4] Sayed MD. Traditional medicine in health care, J. Ethnopharmacol. 1980;2:19–22.
[PubMed]

[5] Burits M, Bucar F. Antioxidant activity of Nigella sativa essential oil. Phytother Res.  2000;14:323–328.
[PubMed]

[6] Rajsekhar, Saha & Kuldeep, Bhupendar. (2011). Pharmacognosy and Pharmacology of Nigella sativa - A review. International Research Journal of Pharmacy. 2. 36-39.
[researchgate]

[7] Merfort I, Wray V, Barakat HH, Hussein SAM, Nawwar MAM, Willuhn G. Flavonoid triglycerides from seeds of Nigella sativa. Phytochemistry. 1997;46:359–363.
[sciencedirect]

[8] Warrier PK, Nambiar VPK, Ramankutty C, Vasudevan Nair R. Telangana: Orient Longman; 2004. Indian Medicinal Plants: A Compendium of 500 Species; pp. 139–142.
[onlinelibrary.wiley]

[9] New Delhi: 1989. The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India, part 1, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare; pp. 119–120.
[ayush.gov.in]

[10] Schleicher, P., & Saleh, M. (2007). Natürlich heilen mit Schwarzkümmel. Südwest.
[Thalia]

[11] Antimicrobial effect of crude extracts of Nigella sativa on multiple antibiotics-resistant bacteria. Morsi NM Acta Microbiol Pol. 2000; 49(1):63-74.
[PubMed]

[12] Detection of the antibacterial effect of Nigella sativa ground seeds with water. Bakathir HA, Abbas NA Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. 2011; 8(2):159-64.
[PubMed]

[13] Antidermatophyte activity of ether extract of Nigella sativa and its active principle, thymoquinone. Aljabre SH, Randhawa MA, Akhtar N, Alakloby OM, Alqurashi AM, Aldossary A J Ethnopharmacol. 2005 Oct 3; 101(1-3):116-9.
[PubMed]

[14] Novel antifungal defensins from Nigella sativa L. seeds. Rogozhin EA, Oshchepkova YI, Odintsova TI, Khadeeva NV, Veshkurova ON, Egorov TA, Grishin EV, Salikhov SI Plant Physiol Biochem. 2011 Feb; 49(2):131-7.
[PubMed]

[15] El-Nagerabia SA, Al-Bahryb SN, Elshafieb AE, AlHilalib S. Effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa extract and Nigella sativa oil on the growth and aflatoxin B1 production of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus strains. Food Cont. 2012;25:59–63.
[sciencedirect]

[16] Sunita M, Meenakshi SH. Chemical composition and antidermatophytic activity of Nigella sativa essential oil. Afr J Pharm Pharacol. 2013;7:1286–1292.
[EJHP]

[17] Fierro IM, Barja-Fidalgo C, Cunha FQ, Ferreira SH. The involvement of nitric oxide in the anti-Candida albicans activity of rat neutrophils. Immunology. 1996;89:295–300.
[PMC free article]

[18] Khan MA, Ashfaq MK, Zuberi HS, Mahmood MS, Gilani AH. The in vivo antifungal activity of the aqueous extract from Nigella sativa seeds. Phytother Res. 2003;17:183–186.
[PubMed]

[19] Bita A, Rosu A, Calina D, et alAn alternative treatment for Candida infections with Nigella sativa extractsEuropean Journal of Hospital Pharmacy: Science and Practice 2012;19:162.
[EJHP]

[20] Abdel Azeiz AZ, Saad AH, Darweesh MF. Efficacy of thymoquinone against vaginal candidiasis in prednisolone-induced immunosuppressed mice. J Am Sci. 2013;9:155–159.
[researchgate]

[21] Oxidants and antioxidants in viral diseases: disease mechanisms and metabolic regulation. Peterhans E J Nutr. 1997 May; 127(5 Suppl):962S-965S.
[PubMed]

[22] In vivo acute depletion of CD8(+) T cells before murine cytomegalovirus infection upregulated innate antiviral activity of natural killer cells. Salem ML, Hossain MS Int J Immunopharmacol. 2000 Sep; 22(9):707-18.
[PubMed]

[23] Protective effect of black seed oil from Nigella sativa against murine cytomegalovirus infection. Salem ML, Hossain MS Int J Immunopharmacol. 2000 Sep; 22(9):729-40.
[PubMed]

[24] Barakat EM, El Wakeel LM, Hagag RS. Effects of Nigella sativa on outcome of hepatitis C in Egypt. World J Gastroenterol. 2013;19:2529–2536.
[PMC free article]

[25] Field trial of Saussurea lappa roots against nematodes and Nigella sativa seeds against cestodes in children. Akhtar MS, Riffat S J Pak Med Assoc. 1991 Aug; 41(8):185-7.
[PubMed]

[26] Okeola VO, Adaramoye OA, Nneji CM, Falade CO, Farombi EO, Ademowo OG. Antimalarial and antioxidant activities of methanolic extract of Nigella sativa seeds (black cumin) in mice infected with Plasmodium yoelli nigeriensis. Parasitol Res. 2011;108:1507–1512.
[PubMed]

[27] Baghdadi HB, Al-Mathal EM. Anti-coccidial activity of Nigella sativa L. J Food Agricul Envir. 2011;9:10–17.
[researchgate]

[28] Mahmoud MR, El-Abhar HS, Saleh S. The effect of Nigella sativa oil against the liver damage induced by Schistosoma mansoni infection in mice. J Ethnopharmacol. 2002;79:1–11.
[PubMed]

[29] Cytogenetic studies on Nigella sativa seeds extract and thymoquinone on mouse cells infected with schistosomiasis using karyotyping. Aboul-Ela EI Mutat Res. 2002 Apr 26; 516(1-2):11-7.
[PubMed]

[30] Mohamed AM, Metwally NM, Mahmoud SS. Sativa seeds against Schistosoma mansoni different stages. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2005;100:05–211.
[PubMed]

[31] Shenawy El Nahla S, Soliman MF, Reyad SI. The effect of antioxidant properties of aqueous garlic extract and Nigella sativa as anti- schistosomiasis agents in mice. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo. 2008;50:29–36.
[PubMed]

[32] Shabana, A., El-Menyar, A., Asim, M., Al-Azzeh, H., & Al Thani, H. (2013). Cardiovascular benefits of black cumin (Nigella sativa). Cardiovascular toxicology, 13(1), 9-21.
[ACADEMIA]

[33] Benhelima, A., Kaid-Omar, Z., Hemida, H., Benmahdi, T., & Addou, A. (2016). Nephroprotective and diuretic effect of Nigella sativa L seeds oil on lithiasic wistar rats. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines, 13(6), 204-214.
[African Journals Online]

[34] Überblick über Studien zum Schwarzkümmel und seiner Wirkung Prof. Dr. Sigrun Chrubasik-Hausmann, Schwarzkümmel
[Uniklinik Freiburg]

[35] Effects of intraperitoneal thymoquinone on chronic neuropathic pain in rats. Amin B, Taheri MM, Hosseinzadeh H Planta Med. 2014 Oct; 80(15):1269-77.
[PubMed]

[36] Pharmacological and toxicological properties of Nigella sativa. Ali BH, Blunden G Phytother Res. 2003 Apr; 17(4):299-305.
[PubMed]

[37] Hebi, M., Zeggwagh, N., Hajj, L., El Bouhali, B., & Eddouks, M. (2016).Cardiovascular effect of Nigella sativa L. Aqueous Extract in Normal Rats. 16(1), 47-55.
[researchgate]

[38] Dehkordi, F. R., & Kamkhah, A. F. (2008). Antihypertensive effect of Nigella sativa seed extract in patients with mild hypertension. Fundamental & clinical pharmacology, 22(4), 447-452.
[PubMed]

[39] Cardio-protective and anti-cancer therapeutic potential of Nigella sativa. Shafiq H, Ahmad A, Masud T, Kaleem M Iran J Basic Med Sci. 2014 Dec; 17(12):967-79.
[PubMed]

[40] Cardiovascular benefits of black cumin (Nigella sativa). Shabana A, El-Menyar A, Asim M, Al-Azzeh H, Al Thani H Cardiovasc Toxicol. 2013 Mar; 13(1):9-21.
[PubMed]

[41] A review of the effects of Nigella sativa L. and its constituent, thymoquinone, in metabolic syndrome. Razavi BM, Hosseinzadeh HJ Endocrinol Invest. 2014 Nov; 37(11):1031-40.
[PubMed]

[42] Boskabady, M. H., Javan, H., Sajady, M., & Rakhshandeh, H. (2007). The possible prophylactic effect of Nigella sativa seed extract in asthmatic patients. Fundamental & clinical pharmacology, 21(5), 559-566.
[Wiley Online Library]

[43] Balaha, M. F., Tanaka, H., Yamashita, H., Rahman, M. N. A., & Inagaki, N. (2012). Oral Nigella sativa oil ameliorates ovalbumin-induced bronchial asthma in mice. International immunopharmacology, 14(2), 224-231.
[Science Direct]

[44] Kalus, U., Pruss, A., Bystron, J., Jurecka, M., Smekalova, A., Lichius, J. J., & Kiesewetter, H. (2003). Effect of Nigella sativa (black seed) on subjective feeling in patients with allergic diseases. Phytotherapy Research: An International Journal Devoted to Pharmacological and Toxicological Evaluation of Natural Product Derivatives, 17(10), 1209-1214.
[Wiley Online Library]

[45] Parvardeh S, Nassiri-Asl M, Mansouri SMT, Hosseinzadeh H. Study on the anticonvulsant activity of thymoquinone, the major constituent of Nigella sativa L. seeds, through intracerebroventricular injection. J Med Plants. 2005;4:45–52.
[researchgate]

[46] Anticonvulsant effects of thymoquinone, the major constituent of Nigella sativa seeds, in mice. Hosseinzadeh H, Parvardeh S Phytomedicine. 2004 Jan; 11(1):56-64.
[PubMed]

[47] Effect of Nigella sativa fixed oil on ethanol toxicity in rats. Pourbakhsh H, Taghiabadi E, Abnous K, Hariri AT, Hosseini SM, Hosseinzadeh H Iran J Basic Med Sci. 2014 Dec; 17(12):1020-31.
[PubMed]

[48] Neuroprotective effect of thymoquinone in acrylamide-induced neurotoxicity in Wistar rats. Mehri S, Shahi M, Razavi BM, Hassani FV, Hosseinzadeh H Iran J Basic Med Sci. 2014 Dec; 17(12):1007-11.
[PubMed]

[49] Clinical efficacy of the co-administration of Turmeric and Black seeds (Kalongi) in metabolic syndrome - a double blind randomized controlled trial - TAK-MetS trial. Amin F, Islam N, Anila N, Gilani AH Complement Ther Med. 2015 Apr; 23(2):165-74.
[PubMed]

[50] Alternative supplement for enhancement of reproductive health and metabolic profile among perimenopausal women: a novel role of Nigella sativa. Latiff LA, Parhizkar S, Dollah MA, Hassan ST Iran J Basic Med Sci. 2014 Dec; 17(12):980-5.
[PubMed]

[51] Protective Effects of Nigella sativa on Metabolic Syndrome in Menopausal Women. Ibrahim RM, Hamdan NS, Ismail M, Saini SM, Abd Rashid SN, Abd Latiff L, Mahmud R Adv Pharm Bull. 2014; 4(1):29-33.
[PubMed]

[52] Oxidative Stress Responses to Nigella sativa Oil Concurrent with a Low-Calorie Diet in Obese Women: A Randomized, Double-Blind Controlled Clinical Trial. Namazi N, Mahdavi R, Alizadeh M, Farajnia SPhytother Res. 2015 Nov; 29(11):1722-8.
[PubMed]

[53] Effects of Nigella sativa oil with a low-calorie diet on cardiometabolic risk factors in obese women: a randomized controlled clinical trial. Mahdavi R, Namazi N, Alizadeh M, Farajnia S Food Funct. 2015 Jun; 6(6):2041-8.
[PubMed]

[54] Efficacy of Nigella sativa on serum free testosterone and metabolic disturbances in central obese male. Datau EA, Wardhana, Surachmanto EE, Pandelaki K, Langi JA, Fias Acta Med Indones. 2010 Jul; 42(3):130-4.
[PubMed]

[55] Fatima A, Shad MN, Asrar A, Murad S. Effects of Nigella sativa on HDL-c & body weight. Pak J Med Health Sci. 2014;8(1):122–4.
[researchgate]

[56] Effect of Nigella sativa and Allium sativum coadminstered with simvastatin in dyslipidemia patients: a prospective, randomized, double-blind trial. Ahmad Alobaidi AH Antiinflamm Antiallergy Agents Med Chem. 2014 Mar; 13(1):68-74.
[PubMed]

[57] The effect of Nigella sativa L. (black cumin seed) on intractable pediatric seizures. Akhondian J, Parsa A, Rakhshande H Med Sci Monit. 2007 Dec; 13(12):CR555-9.
[PubMed]

[58] The effect of thymoquinone on intractable pediatric seizures (pilot study). Akhondian J, Kianifar H, Raoofziaee M, Moayedpour A, Toosi MB, Khajedaluee M Epilepsy Res. 2011 Jan; 93(1):39-43.
[PubMed]

[59] The clinical outcome of adjuvant therapy with black seed oil on intractable paediatric seizures: a pilot study. Shawki M, El Wakeel L, Shatla R, El-Saeed G, Ibrahim S, Badary O Epileptic Disord. 2013 Sep; 15(3):295-301.
[PubMed]

[60] Beneficial therapeutic effects of Nigella sativa and/or Zingiber officinale in HCV patients in Egypt. Abdel-Moneim A, Morsy BM, Mahmoud AM, Abo-Seif MA, Zanaty MI EXCLI J. 2013; 12():943-55.
[PubMed]

[61] Effects of Nigella sativa on outcome of hepatitis C in Egypt. Barakat EM, El Wakeel LM, Hagag RS World J Gastroenterol. 2013 Apr 28; 19(16):2529-36.
[PubMed]

[62] Nigella sativa concoction induced sustained seroreversion in HIV patients. Onifade AA, Jewell AP, Adedeji WA Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. 2013; 10(5):332-5.
[PubMed]

[63] Onifade AA, Jewell AP, Okesina AB. Seronegative conversion of an HIV positive subject treated with Nigella sativa and honey. Afr J Infect Dis. 2015;9(2):47–50.
[researchgate]

[64] Field trial of Saussurea lappa roots against nematodes and Nigella sativa seeds against cestodes in children. Akhtar MS, Riffat S J Pak Med Assoc. 1991 Aug; 41(8):185-7.
[PubMed]

[65] Effects of Nigella sativa L. seed oil on abnormal semen quality in infertile men: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Kolahdooz M, Nasri S, Modarres SZ, Kianbakht S, Huseini HF Phytomedicine. 2014 May 15; 21(6):901-5.
[PubMed]

[66] Mandavi R, Heshmati J, Namazi N. Effects of black seeds (Nigella sativa) on male infertility: a systematic review. J Herb Med. 2015;5(3):133–9. doi: 10.1016/j.hermed.2015.03.002.
[Science Direct]

[67] Effectiveness of Nigella sativa oil in the management of rheumatoid arthritis patients: a placebo controlled study. Gheita TA, Kenawy SA Phytother Res. 2012 Aug; 26(8):1246-8.
[PubMed]

[68] Majdalawieh, A. F., & Fayyad, M. W. (2016). Recent advances on the anti-cancer properties of Nigella sativa, a widely used food additive. Journal of Ayurveda and integrative medicine, 7(3), 173-180.
[Science Direct]

[69] Cardio-protective and anti-cancer therapeutic potential of Nigella sativa. Shafiq H, Ahmad A, Masud T, Kaleem M Iran J Basic Med Sci. 2014 Dec; 17(12):967-79.
[PubMed]

[70] Thymoquinone in the clinical treatment of cancer: Fact or fiction? Abukhader MM Pharmacogn Rev. 2013 Jul; 7(14):117-20.
[PubMed]

[71] Anticancer activities of Nigella sativa (black cumin). Khan MA, Chen HC, Tania M, Zhang DZ Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. 2011; 8(5 Suppl):226-32.
[PubMed]

[72] Therapeutic value of black seed oil in methotrexate hepatotoxicity in Egyptian children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Hagag AA, AbdElaal AM, Elfaragy MS, Hassan SM, Elzamarany EA Infect Disord Drug Targets. 2015; 15(1):64-71.
[PubMed]

Milk thistle (Silybum marianum)

valued since pre-Christian times

Milk thistle has been used for over 2000 years as a remedy for liver cirrhosis, hepatitis, jaundice, kidney and urinary stones, snake bites, irregular menstruation and spleen problems.[1] In the centuries-old healing tradition of monasteries, milk thistle is recommended not only for liver diseases, but also for gallbladder, stomach, lungs and for women's diseases.[2] In traditional Chinese medicine, milk thistle is used to stimulate the production of bile and protect the liver.[3]

Research confirms that milk thistle

improves liver function by supporting detoxification and regenerating damaged liver cells, significantly reduces symptoms and complications in patients with type 2 diabetes, and lowers blood sugar and insulin levels.[4] [5] Is used against poisoning by tuberous-leaf mushrooms and fly agarics,[6] [7] inhibits the growth of tumor and cancer cells in breast, ovarian, prostate, and bladder cancers,[8] and increases the effectiveness of chemotherapeutic agents.[9] relieves chronic stress through strengthened growth of nerves and neurites.[10] strengthens the immune system through increased production of lymphocytes and endogenous messengers.[11] 

Caution

Preparations with milk thistle must be avoided in case of allergies to daisy plants because of possible cross-allergy. [12]

 


 

[1] Ludovico Abenavoli, Raffaele Capasso, Natasa Milic, Francesco Capasso. Milk thistle in liver diseases: past, present, future. Phytotherapy Research, Wiley, 2010, 24 (10), pp.1423.10.1002/ptr.3207. hal-00599834
[Archive ouverte HAL]

[2] Ašic, Simon, Pater Simons Hausapotheke: Handbuch zum Bestimmen und Sammeln von Heilpflanzen mit ausführlichen Rezepten, 2000
[Amazon]

[3] Murphy, J. M., Caban, M., & Kemper, K. J. (2000). Milk thistle (Silybum marianum). Longwood Herbal Task Force.
[ResearchGate]

[4] Velussi, M., Cernigoi, A. M., Dapas, F., Caffau, C., & Zilli, M. (1997). Long-term (23 months) treatment with an anti-oxidant drug (silymarin) is effective on hyperinsulinemia, exogenous insulin need and malondialdehyde levels in cirrhotic diabetic patients. Journal of hepatology, 26(4), 871-879.
[ResearchGate]

[5] Velussi, M., Cernigoi, A. M., Viezzoli, L., Dapas, F., Caffau, C., & Zilli, M. (1993). Silymarin reduces hyperinsulinemia, malondialdehyde levels, and daily insulin need in cirrhotic diabetic patients. Current Therapeutic Research, 53(5), 533-545.
[Science Direct]

[7] Parish, R. C., & Doering, P. L. (1986). Treatment of Amanita mushroom poisoning: a review. Veterinary and human toxicology, 28(4), 318-322.
[Europe PMC]

[8] Ramasamy, K., & Agarwal, R. (2008). Multitargeted therapy of cancer by silymarin. Cancer letters, 269(2), 352–362.
[Science Direct]

[9] Agarwal, R., Agarwal, C., Ichikawa, H., Singh, R. P., & Aggarwal, B. B. (2006). Anticancer potential of silymarin: from bench to bedside. Anticancer research, 26(6B), 4457-4498.
[Anticancer Research]

[10] Kittur, S., Wilasrusmee, S., Pedersen, W. A., Mattson, M. P., Straube-West, K., Wilasrusmee, C., ... & Kittur, D. S. (2002). Neurotrophic and neuroprotective effects of milk thistle (Silybum marianum) on neurons in culture. Journal of Molecular Neuroscience, 18(3),  265-269.
[Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg]

[11] Wilasrusmee C, Kittur S, Shah G, et al. Immunostimulatory effect of Silybum Marianum (milk thistle) extract. Med Sci Monit. 2002;8(11):BR439-BR443.
[PubMed]

[12] Mariendistel – Hinweis
[Arzneipflanzenlexikon]