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1% 50gr CBD FULL Cannabis, black chokeberry, Honey

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INGREDIENTS:
Honey (mel), hemp (Cannabis sativa L), black chokeberry, (Aronia melanocarpa) Manufactured by hand according to a traditional recipe with a full spectrum of ingredients

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CBDFULL-1-50-h-h-ar

1% 50gr CBD FULL

Cannabis extract (according to Paracelsus), black chokeberry, Honey.

APPLICATION:
2-3 times a day 1 pea size (1g) melt in the mouth and drink 0.2 l of water. Duration as required. The specified recommended daily dose should not be exceeded. A dietary supplement is not a substitute for a varied diet. Keep away from children. Store dark at room temperature.

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You're reviewing:1% 50gr CBD FULL Cannabis, black chokeberry, Honey

Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.)

Medicinal Plant of the Year 2018

The endocannabinoid system

is an important part of the central and peripheral nervous system responsible for signal transmission between the brain, spinal cord, vegetative nervous system and organs as well as a regulator of optimal physiological and cognitive processes such as: immune system,[1] vegetative nervous system,[2] social behavior and fear,[3] movement, memory, learning processes,[4] control over the formation, survival or death of neural and non-neural cells,[5] as well as for appetite,[6] pain, inflammation,[7] fat and energy metabolism[8] and much more.
   Changes in the endocannabinoid system or cannabinoid deficiency lead to a poorly functioning immune system and a variety of disease states.

Cannabis in the ancient art of healing 

The Use of hemp for a wide range of diseases has been documented for more than 4,800 years.

The Chinese used it for anesthesia during surgical procedures, for malaria, rheumatism, constipation, disorders of the female reproductive system and as a laxative.[9]

In India, hemp was used as an analgesic (toothache, headache and neuralgia), for cramps (tetanus, rabies, colic, diarrhea and epilepsy), for calming (mania, hysteria and anxiety), and for pain relief in inflammatory diseases such as rheumatism, as an antibiotic , used for asthma, bronchitis and many others.[10] [11] [12]

Egyptians used hemp to heal glaucoma,[13] gynecological diseases, pain,[14] fever, obstetrics,[15] parasites,[16] tumors, wounds, swellings, abscesses fever,[17] eyes, cancer and anorectal diseases.[18]

In the west, hemp as a medicine did not trigger a boom until the 19th century.

Hundreds of scientific articles on the healing powers of hemp have been published.[19] A wide range of diseases have been treated. By 1930, more than 2000 hemp-based drugs had been offered.[20] Numerous medical uses of hemp are described in "Sajous's Analytic Cyclopedia of Practical Medicine (1924)"[21] summarized.
After a global ban at the “Geneva Opium Conference 1925” and a demonization campaign, cannabis has disappeared as a medicine.

The Rediscovery

Under public pressure due to the diseases that conventional medicine is at a loss, scientists in the 1970s scrutinized the therapeutic value of cannabis. Over 100,000 studies and specialist articles on cannabis and cannabinoids have now been published. In Germany, treatment with drugs based on cannabis is permitted for over 60 diseases subject to prescription.[22]

According to studies, cannabinoids could represent a safe, inexpensive therapy for a wide range of disease states due to their natural origin and their low side effect profile and protective function against pathological conditions.

Cannabinoids and Pain 

Taking cannabinoids eliminates endocannabinoid deficiency as the main cause of migraines, fibromyalgia[23], irritable bowel syndrome,[24] and other treatment-resistant chronic pain.[25]  Cannabinoids affect the caudal vent, a part of the diencephalon that is responsible for the sense of pain, and are 10 times more effective than morphine by reducing the sensation of pain.[26] The endocannabinoid system influences pain control and mediates central stress-induced analgesia (insensitivity to pain).[27] Cannabinoid agonists suppress chronic and neuropathic pain by activating the CB1 and CB2 receptors in the spinal cord.[28] Cannabinoids reduce hyperalgesia (increased sensation of pain stimulus) by inhibiting the calcitonin gene-related peptide.[29] Cannabinoids inhibit glutamate release and reduce neuropathic pain and secondary and tertiary hyperalgesia (increased sensation of pain stimulus) in migraines and fibromyalgia.[30] Cannabinoids stimulate the production of beta-endorphin, an endogenous morphine with analgesic effects,[31] cannabinoids have twenty times the anti-inflammatory effect of aspirin and double the effect of hydrocortisone.[32] Cannabinoid-2 receptor agonist relieves pain and bone loss caused by bone cancer.[33] [34] Cannabinoids reduce hypersensitivity to pain caused by cancer and reduce inflammatory muscle pain.[35]

Cannabinoids and cancer

The most important property of cannabinoids in cancer treatment is the ability to kill tumor cells in a targeted manner.[36] Studies suggest that cannabinoids can be used in lung cancer,[37] Brain tumors,[38] [39] [40] [41] Breast cancer,[42] [43] [44] Pancreatic cancer,[45] [46] [47] Lymphoma, [48] [49] [50] Thyroid cancer, [51] [52] Skin cancer, [53] [54] Uterine carcinoma, [55] prostate carcinoma, [56] [57] [58] Colon cancer,[59] [60] [61] and bone cancer. [62] [63] Cannabinoids have similar or better effectiveness in relieving chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting than approved anti-emetic drugs.[64]

Cannabinoids in injuries and chronic neurodegenerative diseases

Cannabinoids are used because of the reduction of classic neurotoxic events, the removal of pathological deposits through improved neurological performance, reduced edema, infarct size, glioses, inflammation, blood-brain barrier disorders, in the treatment of brain injuries,[65] strokes[66] [67] [68] and chronic neurodegenerative diseases such as: Alzheimer,[69] [70] [71] [72]  Parkinson's,[73] [74] Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis,[75] [76] [77] Multiple sclerosis,[78] very promising.

Cannabinoids for psychosis, depression and anxiety

Cannabinoids reduce: acute stress,[79] [80] Panic attacks and phobic fears,[81] depression,[82] [83] [84] stress-related damage to the hippocampus,[85] psychosis, [86] and schizophrenia.[87] [88]

Neuroprotective and neuroregenerative properties of cannabinoids

Cannabinoids promote neuroplasticity (ability of the brain to change and adapt to experiences in response), [89] repair and regrowth,[90] [91]

also protect the nerve cells from dying. [92] [93] In this way they form a protection against neurodegenerative diseases such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), mood disorders, Alzheimer's, Huntington's, Parkinson's and schizophrenia. [94]

Cannabinoids and epilepsy

Patients with drug-resistant epilepsy have fewer seizures, [95] degeneration and neuron loss in the hippocampus,[96] especially in Lennox-Gastaut and Dravet syndrome.[97] [98] [99] [100] Patients have few or no seizures and better mood, communication, motor skills, language, behavior, Alertness and sleep[101] [102] Hemp extracts with high levels of CBD and low levels of THC have better anti-epileptic effects than approved drugs such as diphenylhydantoin and mysoline[103].

Cannabinoids inhibit opiate addiction and withdrawal symptoms

Cannabidiol inhibits narcotics addiction, withdrawal symptoms, heroin addiction, [104] [105] [106] Cocaine addiction[107] morphine addiction[108] [109] [110]  and tobacco addiction. [111]


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[87] Leweke FM, Piomelli D, Pahlisch F, Muhl D, Gerth CW, Hoyer C. Cannabidiol enhances anandamide signaling and alleviates psychotic symptoms of schizophrenia. Transl Psychiatry (2012) 2: e94. doi: 10.1038 / tp.2012.15
[CrossRef]

[88] Hallak JE, Dursun SM, Bosi DC, de Macedo LR, Machado-de-Sousa JP, Abrão J, et al. The interplay of cannabinoid and NMDA glutamate receptor systems in humans: preliminary evidence of interactive effects of cannabidiol and ketamine in healthy human subjects. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry (2011) 35: 198-202. doi: 10.1016 / j.pnpbp.2010.11.002
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[89] Campos, Alline C. and Fogaça, Manoela V. and Scarante, Franciele F. and Joca, Sâmia RL and Sales, Amanda J. and Gomes, Felipe V. and Sonego, Andreza B. and Rodrigues, Naielly S. and Galve-Roperh , Ismael and Guimarães, Francisco S. Plastic and Neuroprotective Mechanisms Involved in the Therapeutic Effects of Cannabidiol in Psychiatric Disorders “Frontiers in Pharmacology” DOI: 10.3389 / fphar.2017.00269
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[90] Fuchs, E. and Flugge, G. (2014). Adult Neuroplasticity: More Than 40 Years of Research
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[91] Wolf SA, et al. 2010 Cannabinoid receptor CB1 mediates baseline and activity-induced survival of new neurons in adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Cell Commun. Signal. 810.1186 / 1478-811X-8-12 (doi: 10.1186 / 1478-811X-8-12).
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[92] Wolf SA, Bick-Sander A, Fabel K, et al. Cannabinoid receptor CB1 mediates baseline and activity-induced survival of new neurons in adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Cell Commun Signal. 2010; 8:12. Published 2010 Jun 17. doi: 10.1186 / 1478-811X-8-12
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[93] Jia J, Le W. Molecular network of neuronal autophagy in the pathophysiology and treatment of depression. Neurosci Bull. (2015) 31: 427-34. doi: 10.1007 / s12264-015-1548-2
[CrossRef]

[94] Campos Alline C., Fogaça Manoela V., Scarante Franciele F., Joca Sâmia RL, Sales Amanda J., Gomes Felipe V., Sonego Andreza B., Rodrigues Naielly S., Galve-Roperh Ismael, Guimarães Francisco S.  Plastic and Neuroprotective Mechanisms Involved in the Therapeutic Effects of Cannabidiol in Psychiatric Disorders Frontiers in Pharmacology VOLUME = 8
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[95] Trembly, B., and Sherman, M. (1990). “Double-blind clinical study of cannabidiol as a secondary anticonvulsant,” in Proceedings of the Marijuana 90 International Conference on Cannabis and Cannabinoids, Kolympari, Crete, July 1990 (Cologne: International Association for Cannabinoid Medicines).
[karger]

[96] Do Val-da Silva Raquel A., Peixoto-Santos Jose E., Kandratavicius Ludmyla, De Ross Jana B., Esteves Ingrid, De Martinis Bruno S., Alves Marcela NR, Scandiuzzi Renata C., Hallak Jaime EC, Zuardi Antonio W ., Crippa Jose A., Leite Joao P. Protective Effects of Cannabidiol against Seizures and Neuronal Death in a Rat Model of Mesial Temporal Lobe Epilepsy Frontiers in Pharmacology
[CrossRef]

[97] Devinsky O, Marsh E, Friedman D, Thiele E, Laux L, Sullivan J, et al. Cannabidiol in patients with treatment-resistant epilepsy: an open-label interventional trial. Lancet Neurol. (2016) 15: 270-8. doi: 10.1016 / S1474-4422 (15) 00379-8
[CrossRef]

[98] Devinsky O, Cross JH, Laux L, Marsh E, Miller I, Nabbout R, et al. Trial of cannabidiol for drug-resistant seizures in the dravet syndrome. N Engl J Med. (2017) 376: 2011-20. doi: 10.1056 / NEJMoa1611618
[CrossRef]

[99] Devinsky O, Patel AD, Cross JH, Villanueva V, Wirrell EC, Privitera M, et al. Effect of cannabidiol on drop seizures in the lennox-gastaut syndrome. N Engl J Med. (2018) 378: 1888-97. doi: 10.1056 / NEJMoa1714631
[CrossRef]

[100] Cunha, JM, Carlini, EA, Pereira, AE, Ramos, OL, Pimentel, C., Gagliardi, R., et al. (1980). Chronic administration of cannabidiol to healthy volunteers and epileptic patients. Pharmacology 21, 175-185. doi: 10.1159 / 000137430
[CrossRef]

[101] Brenda E. PorterCatherineJacobson Report of a parent survey of cannabidiol-enriched cannabis use in pediatric treatment-resistant epilepsy Epilepsy & Behavior
[CrossRef]

[102] CBD-enriched medical cannabis for intractable pediatric epilepsy The current Israeli experience Michal Tzadok, Shimrit Uliel-Siboni, Ilan Linder, Uri Kramer, Orna Epstein, Shay Menascu, Andrea Nissenkorn, Omer Bar Yosef, Eli Hyman, Dorit Granot, Michael Dor, Tali Lerman Sagie, Bruria Ben-Zeev Seizure February 2016
[CrossRef]

[103] Izquierdo, I., Orsingher, OA & Berardi, AC Effect of cannabidiol and of other Cannabis sativa compounds on hippocampal seizure discharges. Psychopharmacologia 28: 95-102 (1973).
[CrossRef]

[104] Cannabidiol, a Nonpsychotropic Component of Cannabis, Inhibits Cue-Induced Heroin Seeking and Normalizes Discrete Mesolimbic Neuronal Disturbances
Yanhua Ren, John Whittard, Alejandro Higuera-Matas, Claudia V. Morris and Yasmin L. Hurd Journal of Neuroscience November 25, 2009, 29
[CrossRef]

[105] De Vries, TJ, Homberg, JR, Binnekade, R. et al. Cannabinoid modulation of the reinforcing and motivational properties of heroin and heroin-associated cues in rats. Psychopharmacology 168: 164-169 (2003).
[CrossRef]

[106] JL Scavone, RC Sterling, EJ Van Bockstaele Neuroscience. 2013 Cannabinoid and opioid interactions: Implications for opiate dependence and withdrawal
[PMC]

[107] Cannabidiol, a Cannabis sativa constituent, inhibits cocaine-induced seizures in mice: Possible role of the mTOR pathway and reduction in glutamate release Pedro H. Gobira, Luciano R. Vilela, Bruno DC Gonçalves, Rebeca PM Santos, Antonio C. de Oliveira, Luciene B. Vieira, Daniele C. Aguiar, José A. Crippa, Fabricio A. Moreira NeuroToxicology August 15, 2015.
[CrossRef]

[108] Hurd YL, Spriggs S, Alishayev J, et al. Cannabidiol for the Reduction of Cue-Induced Craving and Anxiety in Drug-Abstinent Individuals With Heroin Use Disorder:
[Pub Med]

[109] Cannabinoid CB 1 receptor knockout mice fail to self-administer morphine but not other drugs of abuse Gregorio Cossu; Liana Fattore; Walter Fratta; Catherine Ledent; Marc Parmentier; Assunta Imperato; Georg A. Böhme Behav Brain Res. 2001
[Pub Med]

[110] Navarro M, Chowen J, Rocio A Carrera M, et al. CB1 cannabinoid receptor antagonist-induced opiate withdrawal in morphine-dependent rats.
[Pub Med]

[111] Morgan CJ, Das RK, Joye A, Curran HV, Kamboj SK. Cannabidiol reduces cigarette consumption in tobacco smokers: preliminary findings. Addict Behav. 2013 Sep;38(9):2433-6. doi: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2013.03.011. Epub 2013 Apr 1. PMID: 23685330.
[ncbi]

 

Honey

Crystallized honey is ideal as an absorption booster.

Honey should be kept in the oral cavity, preferably under the tongue, for as long as possible until the crystals dissolve gently. The substances dissolved in honey reach the bloodstream directly through the mucous membrane.

Honey is the best preservative

Pre-Christian cultures used honey to preserve valuable food for eternity. For years they preserved fresh fruit, vegetables, fish, meat and valuable seeds in raw honey. Real properly stored honey never goes bad. More than 3000 years old honey from Egyptian graves is still edible. During their lavish celebrations, the Romans enjoyed fruits and other foods from distant areas, which were transported in honey and thus remained fresh.[1]

Honey in traditional healing practices

People have been using the healing properties of honey since the Stone Age.[2]

The outstanding effect of honey on our body is well known in all traditional healing practices. Because of bаktеrіzіdes and bacteriostatic [3] properties, it has been and is used externally and internally to treat a variety of diseases, injuries and ailments.

India 
Ayurveda recommends honey for the treatment of poor digestion, irritating cough, asthma, bronchial tuberculosis, insomnia, heart pain, palpitations, lung imbalance, hepatitis, worm infestation, constipation, anemia, eye diseases (such as cataracts) and to keep teeth and gums healthy, treatment vomiting, diarrhea, rheumatoid arthritis, obesity, diabetes mellitus and for the preservation of meat and fruits.[4]

Egypt
honey was the most popular Egyptian remedy. It was mentioned 500 times in 900 recipes.[5] They also used honey to embalm the dead.

Greece
Honey is used in Greece as an
oenomel remedy traditionally as a folk remedy and nervous disorders. Hippocrates prescribed as Oxymel (vinegar and honey) for pain, honey and medicinal plants for acute fever,[6] he used honey for baldness, contraception, wound healing, laxatives, coughs and sore throats, eye diseases, topical antisepsis, prevention and treatment of scars[7]

Islamic medicine
Prophet Mohammad recommended honey To Treat Diarrhea [8] Avicenna hadhoney as one of the best drugs to treat tuberculosis [9] recommended.

Traditional Chinese Medicine
In Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), honey was used as an additive in herbal medicines to improve their immunostimulatory activities.[10]

Due to the antibiotics, the effects of honey have been forgotten. Only with the appearance of multi-resistant microorganisms is medicine forced to respect the antibiotic effect of honey.

Researches:

Honey for Respiratory

Honey has good antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral properties, and Infectionsis superior to prescription drugs, and antibiotics for relieving symptoms of upper respiratory infections[11]. No honey-resistantyet phenotypes have appeared.[12] [13] Honey does not and can cause the development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria Continuous use[14]

Honey for gastrointestinal disorders

Honey istreating colitis just as effective as prednisolone in[15]. Oral administration provides protection against gastrointestinal infections such as gastritis, duodenitis and gastric ulcers caused by bacteria and rotaviruses.[16] [17] [18] [19] Blocks the deposition of pathogenic microorganisms on the intestinal epithelium and protects against bacterial infection of the gastrointestinal tract [20]. Honey quickly resolves diarrhea and gastroenteritis[21] [22]. It can be used to heal stomach ulcersulcers, and [23] as well as vomiting, diarrhea, rheumatoid arthritis, and obesity [24] .

Honey and Diabetes

Honey lowers blood lipids, homocysteine ??levels, and C-reactive protein levels [25]. Honey stimulates insulin secretion, lowers blood sugar levels, increases hemoglobin concentration and improves lipid profile[26] [27]

Honey and cardiovascular diseases

Honey lowers cardiovascular risk factors such as the formation of free radicals and hyperlipidemia [28] [29] Honey lowers venous blood pressure, which reduces tension in the heart and clogging in the venous system [30]. Consumption of natural honey for five weeks has strong anti-arrhythmic and infarct-inhibiting effects [31].


[1] Dr. S. Mladenov, The Preservative Effect of Honey, Pchelarstvo Magazine, issue 12, 1967
[Honeypedia]

[2] Bansal V, Medhi B, Pandhi P. Honey a remedy rediscovered and its therapeutic utility. Kathmandu Univ Med J (KUMJ). 2005 Jul-Sep; 3 (3): 305-9. PMID: 18650599.
[PubMed]

[3] bactericidal = germicidal, bacteriostatic = inhibiting the growth or reproduction of bacteria

[4] Ediriweera E., Premarathna N. Medicinal and cosmetic uses of bee's honey - A review. Ayu. 2012; 33: 178.
[PMC free article]

[5]  Al-Jabri AA. Honey, milk and antibiotics. Afr J Biotechnol. 2005; 4: 1580-1587.
[AJB]

[6] Honey - a remedy rediscovered. Zumla A, Lulat AJR Soc Med. 1989 Jul; 82 (7): 384-5.
[PubMed]

[7]  Bansal V, Medhi B, Pandhi P. Honey a remedy rediscovered and its therapeutic utility. Kathmandu Univ Med J (KUMJ). 2005 Jul-Sep; 3 (3): 305-9. PMID: 18650599.
[PubMed]

[8] Molan PC. Why honey is effective as a medicine. 1. Its use in modern medicine. Bee World. 1999; 80: 80-92.
[TaylorFrancis]

[9] The antimycobacterial effect of honey: an in vitro study. Asadi-Pooya AA, Pnjehshahin MR, Beheshti S Riv Biol. 2003 Sep-Dec; 96 (3): 491-5.
[PubMed]

[10] The immunostimulatory effects and chemical characteristics of heated honey. Department of Pharmacognosy, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Nagoya City University, 3-1 Tanabe-Dori, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya 467-8603, Japan
[PubMed]

[11] Abuelgasim H, Albury C, Lee J. Effectiveness of honey for symptomatic relief in upper respiratory tract infections: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ Evid Based Med. 2020 Aug 18: bmjebm-2020-111336. doi: 10.1136 / bmjebm-2020-111336. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 32817011.
[PubMed]

[12] Maddocks SE, Jenkins RE. Honey: a sweet solution to the growing problem of antimicrobial resistance? Future Microbiol. 2013 Nov; 8 (11): 1419-29. doi: 10.2217 / fmb.13.105. PMID: 24199801.
[FutureMedicine]

[13] Bacteria can't resist honey. Dixon B Lancet Infect Dis. 2003 Feb; 3 (2): 116.
[PubMed

[14] A different and safe method of split thickness skin graft fixation: medical honey application. Emsen IM Burns. 2007 Sep; 33 (6): 782-7.
[PubMed]

[15] Bilsel Y, Bugra D, Yamaner S, Bulut T, Cevikbas U, Turkoglu U. Could honey have a place in colitis therapy? Effects of honey, prednisolone and disulfiram on inflammation, nitric oxide, and free radical formation. Dig Surg. 2002; 19: 306-311.
[PubMed]

[16] Tallet S, Mackkenzie C, Middleton P, Kerzner B, Hamilton R. Clinical, laboratory and epidemiologic features of viral gastroenteritis in infants and children. Pediatrics. 1977; 60: 217-222.
[PubMed]

[17] Haffejee I, Moosa AE. Honey in the treatment of infantile gastroenteritis. Br Med J. 1985; 290: 1866-1867.
[PMC free article]

[18] Somal N, Coley K, Molan P, Hancock B. Susceptibility of Helicobacter pylori to the antibacterial activity of Manuka honey. J Royal Soc Med. 1994; 87: 9-12.
[PMC free article]

[19] Topham J. Why do some cavity wounds treated with honey or sugar paste heal without scarring? J Wound Care. 2002; 11: 53-55.
[PubMed]

[20] Alnaqdy A, Al-Jabri A, Al Mahrooqi Z, Nzeako B, Nsanze H. Inhibition effect of honey on the adherence of Salmonella to intestinal epithelial cells in vitro. Int J Food Microbiol. 2005; 103: 347-351.
[PubMed]

[21] Honey-a remedy rediscovered and its therapeutic utility. Bansal V, Medhi B, Pandhi P Kathmandu Univ Med J (KUMJ). 2005 Jul-Sep; 3 (3): 305-9.
[PubMed]

[22] The antibacterial effect of honey on diarrhea causing bacterial agents isolated in Lagos, Nigeria. Obi CL, Ugoji EO, Edun SA, Lawal SF, Anyiwo CE Afr J Med Med Sci. 1994 Sep; 23 (3): 257-60.
[PubMed]

[23] Ali ATM. Natural honey accelerates healing of indomethacin-induced antral ulcers in rats. Saudi Med J. 1995; 16: 161-166.
[WHO]

[24] Ediriweera ER, Premarathna NY. Medicinal and cosmetic uses of Bee's Honey - A review. Ayu. 2012; 33 (2): 178-182. doi: 10.4103 / 0974-8520.105233
[PMC] 

[25] Natural honey lowers plasma glucose, C-reactive protein, homocysteine, and blood lipids in healthy, diabetic, and hyperlipidemic subjects: comparison with dextrose and sucrose. Al-Waili NS J Med Food. 2004 Spring; 7 (1): 100-7.
[PubMed]

[26] Effect of honey on antibody production against thymus-dependent and thymus-independent antigens in primary and secondary immune responses. Al-Waili NS, Haq AJ Med Food. 2004 winter; 7 (4): 491-4.
[PubMed]

[27]  Bahrami M, Ataie-Jafari A, Hosseini S, Forouzanfar M, Rahmani M, Pajouhi M. Effects of natural honey consumption in diabetic patients: an 8-week randomized clinical trial. Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2008; 2: 1-9.
[PubMed]

[28]  Schramm DD, Karim M, Schrader HR, Holt RR, Cardetti M, Keen CL. Honey with high levels of antioxidants can provide protection to healthy human subjects. J Agric Food Chem. 2003; 51: 1732-1735.
[PubMed]

[29] Yaghoobi N, Al-Waili N, Ghayour-Mobarhan M, Parizadeh SMR, Abasalti Z, Yaghoobi Z, et al. Natural honey and cardiovascular risk factors; effects on blood glucose, cholesterol, triacylglycerols, CRP and body weight compared with sucrose. Sci World J. 2008; 8: 463-469.
[PMC free article]

[30] Rakha MK, Nabil ZI, Hussein AA. Cardioactive and vasoactive effects of natural wild honey against cardiac malperformance induced by hyperadrenergic activity. J Med Food. 2008; 11: 91-98.
[PubMed]

[31]  Najafi M, Shaseb E, Ghaffary S, Fakhrju A, Eteraf-Oskouei T. Effects of chronic oral administration of natural honey on ischemia / reperfusion-induced arrhythmias in isolated rat heart. Iran J Basic Med Sci. 2011; 14: 75-81.
[eprints]

Black chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa)

 proven in Russian folk medicine for decades

The black chokeberry or chokeberry originally comes from North America where it was used by the Potawatomi Indian tribe to heal colds.[1] At the beginning of the 20th century the plant came to the Soviet Union and Europe. In Russia and Eastern Europe in particular, it has been used as a medicinal plant for decades in conventional medicine and folk medicine, for infectious and childhood diseases such as measles or scarlet fever, high blood pressure, treatment of gastric, intestinal, glandular and liver and gallbladder diseases, stomach inflammation and vitamin deficiency diseases, radiation diseases, Poisoning by heavy metals and used for somatic radiation damage [2]

Research confirms the versatility

Black chokeberry can discharge heavy metals and protect against radioactive rays, has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, cancer-fighting, anti-atherosclerotic, antihypertensive, anti-platelet and anti-diabetic properties as well as anti-diabetic properties.[3]

Antioxidant Properties

Black chokeberry has strong antioxidant [4] and radical scavenging properties of any berry. [5] [6] therefore it can be effectively used in the prophylaxis and treatment of health disorders associated with oxidative stress, particularly radiation sickness,[7] cancer [8] and diabetes. [9]

Anti-inflammatory

Because of their strong anti-inflammatory properties,Black chokeberry products canpathological conditions associated with inflammatory processes such as diabetes [10] cardiovascular diseases [11] skin diseases [12] eye diseases [13] immune system disorders [14]  [15] protect.

Detoxification

Black chokeberry can remove toxins and prevent damage to health.
Cadmium - inhibition of damage to kidneys[16] [17] Liver tissue [18] bone[19] [20] Reduced cadmium storage in the brain,[21] blood, liver, kidneys, bones,[22] osteoprotective effect[23]
Lead - Reduced concentration in internal organs, bone tissue and urine, provides complete protection of the liver from histological changes[24] [25] [26]
Alcohol consumption - protection of the stomach, liver and nerves [27] [28] [29]  inhibition of gastric ulcers and lipid peroxidation in the lungs, liver and small intestine [30] reduces anxiety and depression [31]
Nitroso compounds - (tobacco smoke, smoked meat, milk powder, fertilizers, children's toys made from natural and synthetic rubber) Black chokeberry a prevents the production of carcinogenic nitroso compounds [32] [33]
Herbicides -
 polyphenolic compounds present in chokeberry such as chlorogenic acid, quercetin and kaempferol provide protection from paraquat [34] [35]  Mustard gas and its derivatives (chemo) - oral and topical administration of anthocyanins present in chokeberry and quercetin inhibits the damage to red blood cells, lungs, small intestine, liver, spleen and skin [36] [37] 7,12-dimethylbenzo (a) anthracene,[38] detoxification in the liver[39]
Methamphetamines (Crystal Meth) - Chlorogens and caftaric acids can damage liver and protect erythrocytes from oxidative stress.[40]
Tobacco smoke - chokeberry extract inhibits liver degeneration caused by tobacco smoke, pathological tissue changes in the lungs, development of lung tumors[41], erythrocytes, bone marrow and weight loss [42] [43] [44] Generation and release of superoxide radicals [45] and damage to osteoblasts by scavenging the radicals, improving bone mass, stability and fracture healing.[46]

Black chokeberry can alleviate many side effects of medicines

Amiodarone [47] - Pneumotoxicity [48], Indomethacin [49] - gastric lining damage [50] Cisplatin [51] - Kidney cell cytotoxicity [52] Cyclophosphamide [53] and ziprasidone [54] - Decrease in the activities of antioxidant enzymes in healthy cells[55] [56]  Paracetamol [57]- Hepatorenal toxicity in liver and kidney tissues [58]  Rifampicin [59] and isoniazid [60]- liver damage [61] Etoposide [62]- apoptotic HL-60 cells [63]

Disease prevention

Black chokeberry are rich in polyphenols, which are among the most important antioxidants and protect the body from free radicals and thus from various diseases.
Diabetes regulates blood sugar levels [64] [65] increases the effectiveness of insulin [66] and lowers diabetes risk [67] [68]
Cardiovascular diseases Aronia inhibits blood clotting [69] [70] [71], normalized  Blood pressure [72] [73] [74], protects the arteries [75] [76] [77] and heart muscle [78]  protects from metabolic syndrome (obesity, high blood pressure and impaired lipid metabolism) and inhibits the progress of this condition [79] [80] [81] 

Cancer Black chokeberry products prevent cancer development, after two days of administration of chokeberry extract tumor cell growth is inhibited by 50% [82], protect healthy cells from free radicals, increase the effectiveness of cancer drugs [83], accumulate cyanidin glycosides in tumor cells and allow death of cells with carcinogenic changes. [84]  Consumption of chokeberry products Protects against side effects of drugs used in chemotherapy, administration of chokeberry extract increases the level of low-molecular thiols in plasma in cancer patients treated with chemotherapy to the value of healthy subjects [85]. The positive effect of aronia has been proven in pancreatic[86]  Colon [87] [88] [89] [90] Chest- [91] [92] [93] Pulmonary [94] cervical cancer [95] Brain tumor - glioblastoma [96] (aronia extract causes a down-regulation of matrix metalloproteinases MMP-2, MMP-12, MMP-16, MMP-17 in the U 373 glioblastoma cells)[97] leukemia (also in chemotherapy-resistant leukemia) [98] [99] 

Digestive system disorders 

Black chokeberry Protection against digestive disorders such as fatty liver disease [100] [101] [102] Cirrhosis [103] gastric ulcer [104]

Other health problems

Black chokeberry  products can include cellulite, edema [105] prevent obesity and overweight [106] [107] in male infertility [108] [109] Prostate enlargement [110] depression [111], anxiety [112], complicated pregnancies [113] help.

Children under 3 years of age should not eat Black chokeberry. They are also not recommended for people who have blood clotting problems or gastritis. Because of the antihypertensive properties of the berries, people with low blood pressure should also be careful. [114] Consultation with a doctor is recommended.



[1] Überblick über die traditionelle Verwendung von Aroniapflanzen: Kokotkiewicz A, Jaremicz Z, Luczkiewicz M. Aronia plants: a review of traditional use, biological activities, and perspectives for modern medicine. J Med Food. 2010;13(2):255-269.
[
PubMed]

[2] Gesundheitsfördernde Inhaltsstoffe der Aronia melanocarpa: Christine Misfeldt, Gesundheitsfördernde Inhaltsstoffe der Aronia melanocarpa, 2007
[
HAW Hamburg]

[3] Borowska, S. and Brzóska, M.M. (2016), Chokeberries (Aronia melanocarpa) and Their Products as a Possible Means for the Prevention and Treatment of Noncommunicable Diseases and Unfavorable Health Effects Due to Exposure to Xenobiotics. COMPREHENSIVE REVIEWS IN FOOD SCIENCE AND FOOD SAFETY, 15: 982-1017.
[Wiley Online Library]

[4] Graversen HB, Becker EM, Skibsted LH, Andersen ML. 2008. Antioxidant synergism between fruit juice and a-tocopherol. A comparison between high-phenolic black chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa) and high-ascorbic blackcurrant (Ribes nigrum). Eur Food Res Technol 226:737–43.
Web of Science®

[5] Jakobek L, Šeruga M, Medvidovic-Kosanovic M, Novak I. 2007. Antioxidant activity and polyphenols of Aronia in comparison to other berry species. Agric Conspec Sci 72:301–6.
Hrcak

[6] Bräunlich M, Slimestad R, Wangensteen H, Brede C, Malterud KE, Barsett H. 2013c. Extracts, anthocyanins and procyanidins from Aronia melanocarpa as radical scavengers and enzyme inhibitors. Nutrients 5:663–78.
PubMed

[7] Andryskowski G, Niedworok J, Maziarz Z, Malkowski B. 1998a. Protective effect of natural anthocyanin dye on experimental radiation sickness. Acta Pol Toxicol 6:155–62.
CEON

[7a] Reza Ghasemnezhad Targhi, Mansour Homayoun, Somaieh Mansouri, Mohammad Soukhtanloo, Shokouhozaman Soleymanifard, Masoumeh Seghatoleslam, Radio protective effect of black mulberry extract on radiation-induced damage in bone marrow cells and liver in the rat, Radiation Physics and Chemistry,Volume 130,2017,
sciencedirect

[8] Olas B, Kedzierska M, Wachowicz B, Stochmal A, Oleszek W, Jeziorski A. 2010. Effect of aronia on thiol levels in plasma of breast cancer patients. Cent Eur J Biol 5:38–46.
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[9] Rugina D, Diaconeasa Z, Coman C, Bunea A, Socaciu C, Pintea A. 2015. Chokeberry anthocyanin extract as pancreatic ß-cell protectors in two models of induced oxidative stress. Oxid Med Cell Longev 2015:429075.
PubMed

[10] Broncel M, Koziróg M, Duchnowicz P, Koter-Michalak M, Sikora J, Chojnowska-Jezierska J. 2010. Aronia melanocarpa extract reduces blood pressure, serum endothelin, lipid, and oxidative stress marker levels in patients with metabolic syndrome. Med Sci Monitor 16:CR28–34.
PubMed

[11] Zapolska-Downar D, Bryk D, Malecki M, Hajdukiewicz K, Sitkiewicz D. 2012. Aronia melanocarpa fruit extract exhibits anti-inflammatory activity in human aortic endothelial cells. Eur J Nutr 51:563–72.
PubMed

[12] Young KN, Young LH. 2015. Skin anti-inflammatory activity of nano-encapsulated Aronia melanocarpa extracts. Res J Biotechnol 10:62–74.
Web of Science®

[13] Ohgami K, Ilieva I, Shiratori K, Koyama Y, Jin XH, Yoshida K, Kase S, Kitaichi N, Suzuki Y, Tanaka T, Ohno S. 2005. Anti-inflammatory efects of Aronia extract on rat endotoxin-induced uveitis. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 46:275–81.
PubMed

[14] Ho GTT, Bräunlich M, Austarheim I, Wangensteen H, Malterud KE, Slimestad R, Barsett H. 2014. Immunomodulating activity of Aronia melanocarpa polyphenols. Int J Mol Sci 15:11626–36.
PubMed

[15] Appel K, Meiser P, Millán E, Collado JA, Rose T, Gras CC, Carle R, Muñoz E. 2015. Chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa (Michx.) Elliot) concentrate inhibits NF-?B and synergizes with selenium to inhibit the release of pro-inflammatory mediators in macrophages. Fitoterapia 105:73–82.
PubMed

[16] Prabu SM, Shagirtha K, Renugadevi J. 2011. Quercetin in combination with vitamins (C and E) improve oxidative stress and hepatic injury in cadmium intoxicated rats. Biomed Prev Nutr 1:1–7.
[PubMed]

[17] Wang L, Lin SQ, He YL, Liu G, Wang ZY. 2013. Protective effects of quercetin on cadmium-induced cytotoxicity in primary cultures of rat proximal tubular cells. Biomed Environ Sci 26:258–67.
PubMed

[18] Krishnakumar N, Prabu SM, Sulfikkarali NK. 2012. Quercetin protects against cadmium-induced biochemical and structural changes in rat liver revealed by FT-IR spectroscopy. Biomed Prev Nutr 2:179–85.
[Science Direct]

[19] Brzóska MM, Roszczenko A, Rogalska J. 2013. Protective effect of polyphenols from Aronia melanocarpa berries against cadmium-induced weakening of the femur biomechanical properties in rats. Bone Abstracts. European Calcified Tissue Society Congress; Lisbon, Portugal 18–21 May 2013.
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[114] Черноплодная рябина, или арония Мичурина, – действительно уникальное растение. Хотя она относится к тому же семейству, что и красная рябина, близкими родственниками они не являются.
[
Apteka Mos.ru]

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